FOR THOSE WITH SWALLOWING
Compiled by the
Whatever your age, eating is essential for good health and should also be a pleasant pastime. However there are those among us who because of their condition come to regard eating as a chore. Amongst these are those who have chewing or swallowing difficulties and it is for these people that this cookbook is compiled.
We have endeavored to include 'starters', 'mains' and 'sweets while at the same time taking into account a balanced and nutritional diet.
We have also included a few helpful (we hope) hints which will make the meals more attractive.
All of our recipes are suitable for all the family and guests as well so that the one with difficulties does not feel out of the party.
There are I feel two basic rules to follow when confronted by this problem:-
AND A FEW OTHERS TOO:-
You will soon find this sort of cooking is easy and you will develop your own ideas and hints.
Although it is important to start the day with a good breakfast it is not always easy to think of something smooth and slippery, specially if you have always been the packaged cereal, eggs bacon and toast type.
So here are a few suggestions:-
People with eating difficulties are often happier with lots of little meals, and although there is often nothing more comforting than a good cup of tea with a couple of 'dunked' biscuits, it is often wiser to have something more substantial.
Here are a few suggestions:-
Most of these recipes can also be used as luncheon, or snack meals - adjust servings to suit.
Almost all soups can be served if they are first put through the food processor - so use your own favourite soup recipes. When they are pureed they often look a bit uninteresting so use a garnish to pep them up a bit. Some suitable garnishes are:-
Use your imagination, but make sure the garnish goes with the flavour of the soup.
Parsley goes with just about anything, mint is excellent on lamb vegetable soup, sour cream and cinnamon is very good on pumpkin soup, thyme on poultry soups, tomato paste looks dramatic on cream soups etc etc.
Method: Chop pumpkin flesh roughly.
In a large saucepan fry onion in oil over a moderate heat until it softens. Add herbs (1/2 teasp) pumpkin and toss to combine. Pour in chicken stock and bring to boil and simmer for about 20 -25 minutes. Remove bay leaf and puree soup in processor (you will need to do it in batches). Return soup to saucepan and heat slowly until almost boiling. Stir in nutmeg and yoghurt.
Serve in bowls with dollop of sour cream sprinkled with finely chopped parsley. (Serves 8)
Method:-Sauté onions and broccoli until soft in 2 tablespoons butter and remove from pan. Add remaining butter to pan, melt and add flour - mix well. Add milk slowly stirring constantly. Add chicken broth and remaining ingredients, simmer 15 minutes. Process until smooth. Reheat and serve in bowls, garnished with a sprinkling of paprika. (Serves 8)
Method :- Cook the vegetables in chicken stock until tender. Process vegetables until smooth and add stock in which they were cooked. Melt butter in saucepan and add flour stirring well. Slowly add milk and bring to boil. Combine white sauce and vegetable mixture. Reheat and season to taste. Serve garnished with a swirl of tomato puree. (Serves 4)
Method:- Place tomatoes in boiling water and allow to stand for 1 minute. Peel and cut in half to remove seeds, discard peel and seeds. Process pulp until smooth.
Melt the butter and add the flour and salt. Add tomato puree slowly stirring all the time until thickened. Add sugar and cold milk slowly stirring constantly to prevent curdling. Heat and serve. Garnish with a dollop of yoghurt or sour cream sprinkled with finely chopped parsley. (Serves 4)
Method:- Melt butter in saucepan and add flour stirring well (do not brown). Slowly add milk and salt stirring constantly until mixture thickens.
Lightly fry onion and celery in cooking oil until onion is golden and soft. Add chicken, parsley, chicken stock and chicken cube. Cool the mixture and puree until smooth. Add to white sauce and reheat. Serve garnished with a trickle of tomato puree. (Serves 4)
Make as for CREAM OF CHICKEN SOUP - omitting cooked chicken and chicken stock cube and substituting 210grm tin of red salmon. Serve garnished with a dollop of sour cream or yoghurt sprinkled with finely chopped parsley.
Method:- Mix all ingredients together and stand for 15 minutes. Spoon into four greased ramekins and bake in moderate oven for 30mins. Serve garnished with tomato puree and a sprinkle of finely chopped mint.
Method:- Prick potatoes all overand place in oven preheated to 200 degrees C. (400 degrees F) Bake for 60 minutes. Allow to cool for easier handling.
Cut a thin slice from the side of each potato. Carefully scoop most of potato out of shell leaving the shells intact. Beat the potato flesh with butter, egg yolk and salt and pepper. Add 2/3 of cheese and mix well. Beat egg whites until stiff and fold into the potato mixture.
Pile the potato mixture carefully back into the potato shells and sprinkle rest of cheese on top.
Place potatoes on baking tray and return to the oven for 15-20 minutes until golden brown. Serve on individual plates. (Serves 4)
Variations:- The following may be added to the potato and egg mixture if desired:- 1 Pureed red or green capsicum (remove skin and seeds before pureeing); 2 pureed ham; 3 curry powder; 4 lightly fried and finely chopped mushrooms; 5 crisp bacon finely crumbed; 6 pureed onion.
This is used in some of these recipes. In processor blend together three egg yolks, 2 - 2 1/2tspn dry mustard, 2 1/2 tabsp good white vinegar (or juice of one lemon), 1/2 tspn salt, for at least one minute. Continue processing while at the same time adding one cup of olive oil until the mayonnaise is thick and creamy. Continue processing and slowly add 1 tabsp of castor sugar dissolved in two tabsp of boiling water. Process one more minute at least. Keeps well in frig.
Method:- Dissolve gelatin in boiling liquid, place in processor with salmon, cut up onion and mayonnaise and process until smooth.
Pour into individual oiled moulds and refrigerate for 2 hours or overnight
Turn out onto individual plates and pipe cold seasoned mashed potato around the bottom, add sprinkling of finely chopped parsley. (Serves 3-4)
Method:- Dissolve gelatine in boiling liquid and place in processor with well drained asparagus, onion and mayonnaise and process until smooth.
Pour into individual oiled moulds and refrigerate for at least 2 hours or overnight.
Turn out onto individual plates and pipe cold seasoned mashed potato around bottom, drizzle a little tomato pulp on top. (Serves 3-4)
The previous two mousse can be served together effectively. Pour salmon mousse into oiled bar tin (8cm x 25cm) and allow to set in refrigerator for about one hour. Then pour asparagus mousse gently on top. Refrigerate for at least two hours or over night. Turn out and cut into 3cm slices and carefully transfer these onto individual plates. Garnish with a rosette of seasoned mashed potato and a drizzle of tomato pulp. (Serves 8)
Method :- Mix warmed oil and cornflour in saucepan. Cook slowly stirring constantly for 1-2 minutes. Remove saucepan from heat and gradually stir in milk. Return to heat and stirring constantly bring to boil over moderate heat until sauce thickens.
Wash potatoes well and prick all over. Bake in hot oven for about 45-60 mins or until potatoes are tender. Carefully cut slice from each and scoop out centre. Process white sauce, tuna, onion, cheese, cream, 1/2 teasp salt and 1/4 teasp cayenne pepper until smooth and spoon into potato shells. Reheat and serve garnished with a small dollop of tomato paste.
Method :- Process crab meat and liquid until very fine and transfer into a saucepan with the water, wine and juice and bring to the boil.
Toss cheese and cornflour together in a plastic bag. Add to the crab mixture, stir constantly over a medium heat until the cheese is melted and the mixture slightly thickened.
Add parsley and serve over tomato flavoured spaghetti - cooked a little softer than al dente.
Method :- Melt butter over moderate heat and stir in flour and salt, cook for one minute and then add milk slowly stirring constantly until mixture boils and thickens. Add half the cheese and stir until cheese melts.
Process tuna, vegetables, and Worchester sauce until very fine. Add to white sauce and reheat. Spoon into four lightly oiled ramekins and sprinkle remaining cheese on top. Brown lightly under griller and serve.
Most family meals can be modified to serve to a person with swallowing/chewing difficulties- it just takes a little thought.
Stews and casseroles can be processed until smooth and served with a selection of colourful pureed vegetables and mashed potatoes. When serving a roast, puree a serve of the meat, put onto the plate and pour the gravy over it.
It is a good idea to cook a quantity of each vegetable to be served to the person with difficulties, puree and freeze in serving sized portions. These can then be quickly reheated in the microwave when required. Vegetables which puree well are :- Pumpkin (choose a dry variety eg JAP); spinach or silver beet - well drained; peas; carrot; parsnip; swede turnip; young beans; sprouts; cauliflower and grated cheese. Experiment for yourself - drain all vegetables well before pureeing.
Pasta dishes - puree the pasta sauce until smooth and serve over spaghetti cooked a little past al dente. Oriental dishes usually served with rice - puree until smooth and serve with steamed rice noodles.
Method :- Fry onion and bacon until onion is soft. Remove from heat and puree. Return to pan, add beaten eggs and scramble until just set. Fold into cheese sauce and turn into an oiled baking dish (30cm x 17crn x 5cm) [Can be made the night before to this stage and refrigerated until 30 mins before serving) Mix melted butter with bread crumbs and sprinkle over. Bake at 170c for 30 minutes.
CHEESE SAUCE - melt 2 tabsp butter, add 2 tabsp flour, 1/2 teasp salt and pinch white pepper. Slowly add 2 cups milk stirring constantly until mixture thickens. Add 125 grms grated cheese and stir to melt cheese. Serve with green, red and orange vegetables. (Serves 6)
Method :- Process tomato, onion, salt and egg until light and fluffy. Put this into bowl with mince and breadcrumbs and mix all together. Form into small balls (about golf ball size - should make about 16) and roll each in bran and flatten slightly.
Fry these in batches in small amount of olive oil over moderate heat until golden brown on both sides. Put balls into casserole dish.
Gravy. While balls are cooking mix together 1 1/2 tabsp corn flour, 2 tabsp soy sauce, and 1 1/2 cups water. When all balls are removed from pan pour gravy mixture into the pan and stir over heat until thickened and boiling. Pour gravy over balls and put into oven at 110 c until required (at least 30 mins)
Serve with vegetables of choice. (Serves4)
Method :- Pour boiling water over bread slices - allow to cool and squeeze dry in a cloth and mash with a fork. Add hard boiled egg, onion and parsley. Beat egg with 3 tabsp milk and add to mixture, season with salt and pepper and mix well.
Grease a pie dish and put into it alternate layers of mixture and sliced tomatoes finishing with a layer of tomato. Sprinkle with breadcrurnbs, dot with butter and bake in moderate oven for 30 mins. Serve with green and yellow vegetables. (Serves 4)
Method :- Process bread into fine crumbs and transfer to bowl. Cut pork into 1cm cubes and process finely and add to breadcrumbs. Place egg, tomato, 1/2 onion, salt and ginger in processor and process until light and fluffy. Add to meat and bread crumbs and mix well. Form into balls (golf ball size) and roll in plain flour and flatten slightly. Fry balls in batches in cooking oil over moderate heat until golden brown on both sides. Put into casserole.
Gravy - roughly chop remaining onion and apple and fry until softened over moderate heat, add cornflour and mix well. Pour in water and soy sauce and stir until thickened and boiling. Process gravy until smooth and pour over balls.
Keep warm in 110 centigrade oven until required - at least 30 minutes. Serve with selection of vegetables. (Serves 4)
Method :- Process bread to fine breadcrumbs and pour into bowl. Cut chicken into 1 cm cubes and process finely and add to breadcrumbs. Process egg, stockcubes, mushrooms, tomato and onion until light and fluffy. Add to meat and crumbs and mix well. Form into small balls (golf ball size) and roll in flour and flatten slightly. Fry over moderate heat until golden brown on both sides - will need to be done in batches. Place balls in casserole dish and pour prepared gravy over them. Place in 110 degree centigrade oven for 30 minutes or until required. Serve with vegetables of choice. (Serves 4)
Method :- Process stale bread into fine crumbs and place in bowl. Drain tuna and process until fine. Add to crumbs. Process together egg, tomato, onion, salt and pepper until light and fluffy and add to fish and crumbs. Mix well and form into balls (golf ball size) coated with plain flour, flatten slightly. Fry over moderate heat until golden brown on both sides. Keep warm in oven and prepare sauce. Serve with lemon sauce and vegetables of choice.
Method :- Melt butter over moderate heat and stir in flour, cook for 1 minute. Add lemon rind and parsley and stir well. Remove from heat and stir in lemon juice. Return to heat and continuously stirring slowly add milk. Slowly bring to boil.
(an excellent accomplement for cold meat or fish)
Cook three large potatoes and mash well, then whip with a little mayonnaise - do not make the mixture too soft. Cool and divide into about 6 portions. Colour each portion with pureed cooked vegetables and form into small balls about 1-2 cm in diameter. Chill well before serving.
Method :- Put meat into a large pot, cover with water, bring to boil and simmer for 3 1/2 - 4 hours. Remove the bones but leave the meat in the water until cold, then skim off the fat. Remove the meat and chop into small pieces and process until very fine. Return to liquor with a good seasoning of salt and pepper, the mace and a pinch of cayenne. Boil together for a further 10 minutes and then pour into a lightly oiled mould. Allow to set overnight and turn out onto a serving dish. Decorate with piped rosettes of curried egg cream and a sprinkling of finely chopped parsley. Slice to serve, with potato balls for those with difficulties swallowing, or salad for the rest of the family. Keeps well in refrigerator for a few days.
Process together two hard boiled eggs, 1 tabsp soft margarine, 1/2 teasp salt and 1/4 teasp good curry powder.
Method :- Place veal knuckle and gravy beef in large pan and cover with about 8 cups water. Add salt, allspice, crushed garlic, peeled and chopped onion, carrot and bayleaf. Simmer, covered, for 3- 3 1/2 hours or until meat breaks away from bone. Strain through fine sieve and retain liquor. Remove meat from bones, discard any fat and cut into small pieces. Process meat until fine.
Topping :- 1 teasp gelatine, 3/4 cup water, 1 beef stock cube. Dissolve stock cube and gelatine in water over low heat, cool. Lightly oil 23cm x 12cm loaf tin and pour a little of the gelatine mixture into the base. Refrigerate until set.
Pack meat into the loaf tin. Measure 31/2 cups reserved stock. Dissolve gelatine in this stock and allow to become cold. Pour cold stock over the meat to cover completely. Refrigerate several hours or overnight. Turn out of tin onto serving platter and decorate with egg cream rosettes. Slice to serve.
Method :- Drain salmon - retain liquid - and remove bones. Process salmon and egg until smooth.
Add salmon liquid to lemon juice add orated onion and boil for one minute. Remove from heat and add gelatine stirring until dissolved.
Mix gelatine liquid with salmon and egg mixture then mix in cream and pour into lightly oiled mould. Allow to set for several hours in refrigerator. Turn out and slice. Serve with potato balls (or salad and bread and butter for rest of family) This amount serves two, adjust ingredients to make up larger tins of salmon.
This is probably the easiest part of the meal to organize as so many of our sweets are based on ice-cream, custard, yoghurt, jelly etc etc. All of these can be served with fresh or stewed fruit well pureed.
Ice cream with a topping of pureed berries - be careful here as some seeds are too big - eg raspberries should be strained.
Ice cream with a topping of summer fruits eg apricots, peaches, plums - peeled and flesh pureed together or singly.
Ice cream with tropical fruit salad pureed. Use rock melon, strained orange juice, strained passion fruit and banana.
Ice cream with pureed stewed fruit. Do not use too much liquid. When using apple make sure cores have been carefully removed, sprinkle with cinnamon. With pears a drizzle of chocolate sauce looks and tastes good.
Ice cream and jelly; or jelly can be used as a garnish on all of the above.
Custard can be used instead of ice-cream in all of the above. In winter use hot custard with pureed stewed fruits.
Pavlova decorated with cream, pureed fruits and or chocolate topping.
The ideas for these simple sweets are limitless.
Method :- Dissolve gelatine in hot water. Beat egg yolks with sugar and add milks. Cook egg and milk mixture in double boiler until mixture coats a silver spoon.(do not boil this mixture). Add dissolved gelatine and cool slightly. Fold in stiffly beaten egg whites and vanilla. Pour into lightly oiled mould until set(individual moulds can be used). Turn out - and drizzle a little raspberry or strawberry topping over. Can be served alone or with pureed fruit.
Method :- Bake apples (microwave on high for 5-6 minutes) remove skin and cores and process until smooth. Beat the whites of eggs until stiff, continue beating gradually adding sugar until all sugar is used. Fold in cold apple pulp and pile roughly into serving dish. Serve with custard or whipped cream.
Method :- Melt chocolate over double boiler. Add cold milk slowly to chocolate - stirring until mixed well. In a small dish mix water, brandy and gelatine and stir until gelatine is dissolved. Add gelatine mix to chocolate mix and allow to cool. Mix in cream. Gently fold in egg whites. Pour into parfait glasses. When set garnish with pureed fruit.
Method :- Process egg yolks, sugar and orange juice together until creamy. Melt the chocolate with cream over boiling water in a double saucepan, stirring constantly until chocolate has combined well with the cream. Combine with egg-sugar mixture and mix well. Pour into glasses and top with a dollop of citrus flavoured yoghurt. Serves 4- 6.
Method:- Process apricots with brandy until smooth. Place sugar in saucepan with 1/3 cup water, bring to boil, reduce heat and simmer for 3 minutes. Sprinkle gelatine over wine and let it soften for 5 minutes. Remove syrup from heat, add wine and gelatine and stir until gelatine is dissolved. Add apricot mixture and stir until well mixed. Fold in whipped cream and pour mixture into 6 lightly oiled moulds. Regfrigerate until set.
SAUCE:- Process reserved apricot syrup, apricot conserve , marmalade kirsch and lemon juice until smooth. Cook over moderate heat stirring constantly for 3 minutes. Cool.
Unmould apricot moulds onto individual plates and serve with sauce. (Serves 6)
Method :- Combine cream and sugar in a saucepan and bring to the boil and simmer for 3 minutes. Remove from heat and stir in juice. Pour into four serving glasses - allow to cool slightly and refrigerate until set. Remove from refrigerator 5 minutes before serving garnished with a drizzle of pureed strawberries.
Method:- Blend cornflour with a little cold water. Boil together rest of water, sugar and grated rind of lemon. Add cornflour mixture and reheat until mixture thickens - add juice of lemons and bring just to boil. Beat in whipped egg whites. Pour into 4 lightly oiled moulds and chill. Turn out of moulds onto individual plates and serve with cold custard made from egg yolks.
Method :- Combine first three ingredients (grated rind of orange can be added) and boil for 2 minutes. Add flour and water mixture and bring to boil. Add fruit juice and whip until light and fluffy. Chill. Serve with ice cream or pureed fruit.
This often seems more difficult than it need be, but a bit of forethought can go along way.
GOOD LUCK, GOOD HEALTH,
AND TAKE CARE.
As many people with swallowing difficulties are in a debilitated state they probably need a high protein diet - here are a few tips for achieving this: